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>> Back to SpecEd 2019 – Stage 2 - 60,000 years and more

Syllabus outcomes for this unit

Select the key learning area to show the list of outcomes.

English

EN2-1A: Communicates in a range of informal and formal contexts by adopting a range of roles in group, classroom, school and community contexts.

EN2-2A: Plans, composes and reviews a range of texts that are more demanding in terms of topic, audience and language.

EN2-4A: Uses an increasing range of skills, strategies and knowledge to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on increasingly challenging topics in different media and technologies.

EN2-7B: Identifies and uses language forms and features in their own writing appropriate to a range of purposes, audiences and contexts.

EN2-8B: Identifies and compares different kinds of texts when reading and viewing and shows an understanding of purpose, audience and subject matter.

EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.

EN2-11D: Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own.

Mathematics

MA2-1WM: Uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas.

MA2-2WM: Selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology, to solve problems.

MA2-4NA: Applies place value to order, read and represent numbers up to five digits.

MA2-17MG: Uses simple maps and grids to represent position and follow routes, including using compass directions.

Creative arts

Dance

DAS2.1: Performs dances from a range of contexts, demonstrating movement skills, expressive qualities and an understanding of the elements of dance.

DAS2.2: Explores, selects and combines movement using the elements of dance to communicate ideas, feelings or moods.

DAS2.3: Gives personal opinions about the use of elements and meaning in their own and others’ dances.

Drama

DRAS2.1: Takes on and sustains roles in a variety of drama forms to express meaning in a wide range of imagined situations.

DRAS2.3: Sequences the action of the drama to create meaning for an audience.

Music

MUS2.1: Sings, plays and moves to a range of music, demonstrating a basic knowledge of musical concepts.

MUS2.2: Improvises musical phrases, organises sounds and explains reasons for choices.

MUS2.4: Identifies the use of musical concepts and musical symbols in a range of repertoire.

Visual arts

VAS2.1: Represents the qualities of experiences and things that are interesting or beautiful by choosing among aspects of subject matter.

VAS2.2: Uses the forms to suggest the qualities of subject matter.

VAS2.3: Acknowledges that artists make artworks for different reasons and that various interpretations are possible.

VAS2.4: Identifies connections between subject matter in artworks and what they refer to, and appreciates the use of particular techniques.

Science | Technologies

Science and technology

ST2-4LW-S: Compares features and characteristics of living and non-living things.

HSIE

Geography

GE2-1: Examines features and characteristics of places and environments.

GE2-2: Describes the ways people, places and environments interact.

GE2-3: Examples differing perceptions about the management of places and environments.

History

HT2-1: Identifies celebrations and commemorations of significance in Australia and in the world.

HT2-2: Describes and explains how significant individuals, groups and events contributed to changes in the local community over time.

HT2-3: Describes people, events and actions related to world exploration and its effects.

HT2-4: Describes and explains effects of British colonisation in Australia.

HT2-5: Applies skills of historical inquiry and communication.

PDHPE

PD2-3: Explains how empathy, inclusion and respect can positively influence relationships.

PD2-4: Performs and refines movement skills that build and enhance relationships and promote inclusion in various situations.

PD2-5: Applies strategies to solve movement challenges.

PD2-10: Demonstrates a range of interpersonal skills that build and enhance relationships and promote inclusion in various situations.

PD2-11: Combines movement skills and concepts to effectively create and perform movement sequences.

Vocabulary words

Teaching and learning activities

Select the activity to display its details.

To print out the following activities, please select the ‘Print this page’ button at the bottom of this screen.

Activity 1 – The oldest living culture on earth

Learning intention

Students will recognise the great expanse of time that Indigenous Australians have held custodianship of this country.

Success criteria

Students understand this expanse of time by engaging with mathematical scale and written forms.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-4A: Uses an increasing range of skills, strategies and knowledge to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on increasingly challenging topics in different media and technologies.
  • EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.
  • GE2-1: Examines features and characteristics of places and environments.
  • GE2-2: Describes the ways people, places and environments interact.

Resources

Approximate time

40 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Before the students walk into the room, play music by an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artist. You could play a range of examples, including:
  2. Ask the students how long ago they think Aboriginal peoples first arrived in Australia. Wait to share the answer until after the video.
  3. Watch the First Footprints – Ep 1 – Super Nomads – Opening scene.
  4. Write the answer on the board: 60,000+ years. Discuss with the students why the number includes a plus sign (Dreaming stories and archaeology currently indicate over 60,000 years, but this could extend with further research).
  5. Ask whether they noticed the presence of giant animals in Australia in the video. Discuss whether the students have heard of megafauna. Ask students if they could imagine walking around with these creatures like some of the First Australians did!
  6. Watch NOVA: Australia’s First Four Billion Years – Megafauna in Ice Age Australia.
  7. Ask students to imagine that they were living over 60,000 years ago alongside the First Australians and the megafauna. Students write a paragraph describing how they would have felt around the megafauna.
  8. Invite students to draw a 30cm line in their books. Students draw a mark at the last 1 millimetre of the line and label their line as follows:
    • The first 29.9cm of the line is an estimate of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander custodianship of Australia.
    • The last millimetre of the line is European occupation and colonisation of Australia.
    Discuss the great difference in this timeline.

Reflection

Discuss student reactions to the timeline. What does it make them wonder? Create an ‘I wonder …’ board for the class to use throughout the unit.

Activity 2 – Star Dreaming

Learning intention

Students will be able to explore the meaning of a Dreaming story and share examples of other stories that pass on a message.

Success criteria

Students are able to discuss the meaning of the Morning Star story with a partner.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-4A: Uses an increasing range of skills, strategies and knowledge to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on increasingly challenging topics in different media and technologies.
  • EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.

Resources

Approximate time

40 minutes

Activity plan

  1. If at all possible, organise for a local Elder or a local AECG representative to be present during, or to deliver, this activity. Please refer to Aboriginal Education Consultative Group (AECG) regions to find regional representatives and their contact details. If you do invite an Elder to your class, ask students to brainstorm questions to provide to the guest beforehand, if appropriate.
  2. Sit the students in a circle on the floor in a darkened classroom. Place a torch or pretend campfire in the middle of the circle (you could even play the Virtual Campfire with Crackling Fire Sounds video on your device or get some fairy lights! While the class pretend to warm their hands, ask the students to tell you stories that their parents or grandparents have told them about the night sky.
  3. Explain that in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, stories are often told about the night skies as well. These were part of the Dreaming stories. Discuss what a Dreaming story is and the purpose that they serve.
  4. Discuss Dreaming stories that students already know. Ask the Elder to share some Dreaming stories with the class, particularly about the night sky.
  5. If you do not have a local Elder or AECG representative available, watch Morning Star – Dust Echoes or Indigenous Astronomy and the Dreaming and discuss with the class.
  6. Discuss the fact that the First Australians use stories about the night sky for many reasons. Sometimes they are used to help paint a map of the land, reflected in the sky. Sometimes they taught a lesson, while others told the next generation how to treat the land.
  7. Students turn to a learning partner and discuss the message of the ‘Morning Star’ story. Share ideas as a class.

Reflection

Discuss the types of messages different cultures pass on through stories. Why do people tell stories?

Activity 3 – Hundreds of nations

Learning intention

Students will learn about some of the many groups that existed in Australia before colonisation and will be able to use a compass to answer questions about these groups.  Students will understand the difference between a primary and secondary source and the limitations of secondary sources.

Success criteria

Students can find small and large groups using the map and can use compass directions to answer questions on the worksheet. Students can discuss the differences between primary and secondary sources.

Syllabus outcomes

  • MA2-1WM: Uses appropriate terminology to describe, and symbols to represent, mathematical ideas.
  • MA2-2WM: Selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology, to solve problems.
  • MA2-4NA: Applies place value to order, read and represent numbers up to five digits.
  • MA2-17MG: Uses simple maps and grids to represent position and follow routes, including using compass directions.
  • HT2-5: Applies skills of historical inquiry and communication.

Resources

Approximate time

60 minutes

Activity plan

  1. As students walk in, display a large map of Australia, for example, Map of Australia (Google Maps).
  2. Ask the students to think of Australia before its contact with Europeans. How many language and cultural groups do they think there were in Australia at that time? Students discuss with a partner and write down their estimate in large writing on a sheet of paper.
  3. One pair at a time, students bring their estimate up to the front of the class. Create a number line, in ascending order, with students working out where each sheet of paper needs to go based on its place value.
  4. Reveal the estimated answer on a different coloured piece of paper and place in the appropriate place on the timeline (300).
  5. Discuss why this would only be an estimate (evidence still being found). Current estimates are generally between 250 and 300, but some argue as high as 600-700.
  6. Show students the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) map of Indigenous Australia. This is an interactive map which shows most of the known groups at the time of European contact.
  7. Explain the differences between a primary and secondary source. Discuss whether this map is a primary or secondary source. Ask students: What does that mean for historians? What problems are there with using secondary sources? Why do we still need them for historical research?
  8. Provide students with the website address and have them work in pairs to complete Attachment 3.1.
  9. Discuss answers to the questions as a class.

Reflection

Students share their final answer on the worksheet with a learning partner.

Activity 4 – The Land owns us

Learning intention

Students are able to visually depict how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples traditionally connected to the Land and the differences to other ideas of land ownership.

Success criteria

Students create visual representations of the difference between First Australians’ relationship to Country and other ideas of land ownership.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-11D: Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own.
  • VAS2.1: Represents the qualities of experiences and things that are interesting or beautiful by choosing among aspects of subject matter.
  • HT2-4: Describes and explains effects of British colonisation in Australia.

Resources

Approximate time

50 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Review what students learnt about different groups in Australia in the last activity. What were the names of some of the groups? Brainstorm what the students remember.
  2. Demonstrate how to complete this exercise about the students’ connection to place. Ask students to talk about the following questions with a partner:
    • Where do you live (suburb)?
    • What do you like about the suburb you live in?
    • What are your favourite places or landmarks near your house?
    • Do you have a farm?
    • Do you know if you own or rent your house?
    • Have you lived there for a long time?
    Students write down their answer to the following question: Where do you live and how are you connected to that place?
  3. Explain that in many cultures, people define where they live by what they own. For example, ‘I own a house in …’, ‘I rent a place in …’ or ‘We have a farm’. In Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures, particularly before European contact, people did not ‘own’ where they lived. They had a very different connection to the place from where they came.
  4. Bob Randall talks about everything that is living around him (trees, plants, animals) all being his family. Ask students whether this is different to how you see your family and the land around you. Discuss as a class. Consider together: If you saw every tree on your property as being a part of your family, how would that change the way that you treated it?
  5. Students use Attachment 4.1 to draw two different images: ‘I own my Land’ and ‘My Land owns me’ and contrast the two.
  6. Discuss as a class how the arrival of Europeans and colonisation would have impacted on Aboriginal peoples’ ways of life and their relationship with the Land.

Reflection

Students explain their image to a learning partner. Display the images in the classroom.

Activity 5 – Sacred Uluru

Learning intention

Students gain an understanding of the significance of Uluru as a sacred site and the different ways in which people interact with this environment.

Success criteria

Students can answer questions from different perspectives and have increased knowledge of Uluru in their brainstorms.

Syllabus outcomes

  • GE2-1: Examines features and characteristics of places and environments.
  • GE2-2: Describes the ways people, places and environments interact.
  • GE2-3: Examples differing perceptions about the management of places and environments.
  • EN2-1A: Communicates in a range of informal and formal contexts by adopting a range of roles in group, classroom, school and community contexts.
  • EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.
  • EN2-11D: Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own.

Resources

Approximate time

60 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Review what the students learnt about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ connection to Country. Explain that all Land is considered special because of their relationship to it, and there were, and continue to be, places of special significance to Aboriginal peoples. Many of these are sacred sites.
  2. Hand out Attachment 5.1. Give students three minutes to write down everything that they already know about Uluru above the picture.
  3. Students answer the following question on the attachment: What makes Uluru a sacred place? Only use the first two lines. Discuss a few of the answers.
  4. Watch Uluru Handback. Students add more facts to the attachment.
  5. Watch How Did Uluru Form? Students add more facts to their brainstorm on Attachment 5.1.
  6. Allow students time to answer the questions on Attachment 5.2.

Reflection

Students add more words and phrases to their brainstorm about Uluru on Attachment 5.1 and then re-answer the question on the bottom of the page, using the second set of lines.

Please refer to Uluru Handback – Behind the News Teacher Resource (PDF 570KB) for further videos and teaching ideas.

Activity 6 – Communicating through dance

Learning intention

Students will be able to explain the importance of dance in Aboriginal culture and will analyse a dance from Bangarra Dance Theatre. Students will investigate the features of a brolga and its environment.

Success criteria

Students will be able to answer comprehension questions about the Bangarra Dance Theatre video and about brolgas and their environment.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-4A: Uses an increasing range of skills, strategies and knowledge to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on increasingly challenging topics in different media and technologies.
  • DAS2.2: Explores, selects and combines movement using the elements of dance to communicate ideas, feelings or moods.
  • DAS2.3: Gives personal opinions about the use of elements and meaning in their own and others’ dances.
  • ST2-4LW-S: Compares features and characteristics of living and non-living things
  • HT2-2: Describes and explains how significant individuals, groups and events contributed to changes in the local community over time.
  • PD2-11: Combines movement skills and concepts to effectively create and perform movement sequences.

Resources

Approximate time

90 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Review some of the facts that the students have learnt about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural heritage (sacred sites, Dreaming, language, stories). Ask students how the Dreaming stories were told (stories, music and dance). Explain that in this activity, you are going to focus on the power of dance to communicate ideas. Brainstorm as a class what the students already know about Aboriginal dance.
  2. Hand out Attachment 6.1 and read together as a class.
  3. Ask whether students have ever seen a performance of Aboriginal dance. Where did they see it? Ask: Has anybody heard of Bangarra Dance Theatre? Show the short video Celebrating Bangarra’s 30th Anniversary at the Opera House. Discuss the students’ reactions.
  4. Bangarra is the leading Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander dance company in Australia. Bangarra states that ‘Dance technique is forged from over 65,000 years of culture, embodied with contemporary movement.’ Do the students think that dance serves the same purpose now as it did pre-European colonisation?
  5. Hand out Attachment 6.2. Students work in pairs to answer the questions. They will need access to the internet for this task.
  6. Watch Brolga dancing in Northern Territory, Australia. Ask students to pay attention to the movements of the brolgas. Discuss how brolgas move and how the class could replicate this in dance (think about using arms like a beak and so on).
  7. Invite students to move around the classroom, dancing like a flock of brolgas.
  8. Hand out Attachment 6.3 and read through the questions together.
  9. Watch Brolga – Bangarra Dance Theatre Education Resource video. As a group, students answer the questions on Attachment 6.3.
  10. Discuss the importance of Bangarra Dance Theatre and what they have contributed to Australian society over the past 30 years.

Note: This activity could be used as an assessment opportunity.

Reflection

Students discuss with a learning partner what they liked best about the Brolga dance video and whether they would be keen to go and watch a performance by Bangarra Dance Theatre.

Activity 7 – Time-honoured fun

Learning intention

Students learn how to play three traditional Indigenous games, demonstrating movement skills and teamwork.

Success criteria

Students successfully play the games and work together to achieve common goals.

Syllabus outcomes

  • PD2-4: Performs and refines movement skills that build and enhance relationships and promote inclusion in various situations.
  • PD2-5: Applies strategies to solve movement challenges.
  • PD2-11: Combines movement skills and concepts to effectively create and perform movement sequences.

Resources

Approximate time

70 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Explain that in this activity, the students are going to play three games traditionally played in some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures from around Australia.
  2. Refer to Indigenous Traditional Games for more games.
  3. Explain the rules for game 1 – Kai.
  4. Explain the rules for game 2 – Gorri.
  5. Explain the rules for game 3 – Woggabaliri.

Note: This activity could be used as an assessment opportunity.

Reflection

Gather the class back together to discuss which games the students liked best and why. Ask: How are these games similar to other games that children play in Australia?

Activity 8 – Art lesson with with Kamilaroi artist Reko Rennie

Learning intention

Students will understand the wide range of art styles in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander artmaking. Students will create their own artwork representing an idea that has meaning for them.

This activity was developed by the AGNSW in conversation with Kamilaroi artist Reko Rennie for a virtual art lesson.

Success criteria

Students will create their own artwork and collaborate with other students to create a larger artwork that has meaning for the class as a whole.

Syllabus outcomes

  • VAS2.2: Uses the forms to suggest the qualities of subject matter.
  • VAS2.3: Acknowledges that artists make artworks for different reasons and that various interpretations are possible.
  • VAS2.4: Identifies connections between subject matter in artworks and what they refer to, and appreciates the use of particular techniques.

Resources

Approximate time

90 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Students select two vibrantly coloured kindergarten squares. Once selected, students will fold one square in half, either diagonally or horizontally. Inform students that this colour will be the top layer.
  2. Using scissors, students cut out a series of geometric and organic shapes. Inform students that the more they cut out, the more the bottom colour will be exposed.
  3. After cutting out shapes, students unfold the square to reveal a pattern. Carefully, students glue the patterned square to the bottom square. Some sections may be particularly delicate, and students may require assistance.
  4. Students are asked to develop an icon that represents themselves, a memory or close relative. They may experiment with pencil on paper. These may vary from icons such as initials, numbers, objects, emojis, and so on. Inform students this icon will be painted over the surface of the squares.
  5. Once students have developed an icon, they select a contrasting colour acrylic paint.
  6. Using a thin or thick brush, students paint their icon over the top of the squares. They may choose to produce a repeated pattern with smaller icons or singular large icon.
  7. As students begin to finish, ask them to start placing their artworks alongside those of the other students until a large collaborative assemblage is created. Students will need to make choices and have discussions about placement and relationships between specific artworks to create the most effective larger-scale collaborative installation with their peers.

Reflection

Students share their artworks with the class, explaining their design. Display artworks in the classroom.

Activity 9 – Captain Cook’s secret mission

Learning intention

Students understand the two missions that Captain Cook had when sailing to Australia in 1770.

Success criteria

Students can identify and sort true and false ideas and information about Captain Cook.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.
  • HT2-3: Describes people, events and actions related to world exploration and its effects.
  • HT2-4: Describes and explains effects of British colonisation in Australia.

Resources

Approximate time

40 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Ask students to write on sticky notes what they think they already know about European exploration, early traders and Captain Cook. Put these notes up on a wall in the classroom and discuss a few of them.
  2. Write the following question on the board: Why was Captain Cook sent to the southern seas? Students copy it into their books and write their answer. Most students will say to find Australia or to bring the convicts. Tell students that they will soon know if they were correct.
  3. Watch Captain Cook and the transit of Venus.
  4. Students edit their previous answer if necessary. Discuss the mission about the transit of Venus.
  5. Explain that Cook had a secret mission as well. While he was in the south, he was to see if he could find the ‘great south land’. Cook had strict instructions for this mission. Hand out Attachment 9.1. Read through as a class before students answer the question at the bottom. Discuss the answers.

Reflection

Review the sticky notes from earlier in the activity. Categorise them into true, false and unsure. Discuss any new things that the students learnt about Captain Cook in this activity.

Activity 10 – The First Fleet

Learning intention

Students will understand why convicts came to Australia on the First Fleet and investigate some early convict experiences.

Success criteria

Students create diary entries which adequately empathise with the convicts on the First Fleet.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-2A: Plans, composes and reviews a range of texts that are more demanding in terms of topic, audience and language.
  • EN2-4A: Uses an increasing range of skills, strategies and knowledge to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on increasingly challenging topics in different media and technologies.
  • EN2-7B: Identifies and uses language forms and features in their own writing appropriate to a range of purposes, audiences and contexts.
  • EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.
  • EN2-11D: Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own.
  • HT2-4: Describes and explains effects of British colonisation in Australia.
  • HT2-5: Applies skills of historical inquiry and communication.

Resources

Approximate time

60 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Review what students learnt about Captain Cook in the previous activity. Ask: Do they know what happened when he returned to England? Explain that his successful mission to find Australia meant that Britain now had another colony in the world.
  2. Discuss the following questions:
    • Why did the First Fleet sail to Australia?
    • Who was on board?
  3. Ask students to imagine that they are one of the convicts sailing to Australia in the First Fleet. They arrive in this unfamiliar land which was very different to their home in England. How might they be feeling? What would they be thinking?
  4. Students are to write a diary entry from the point of view of one of the first convicts, a week after they have arrived in Sydney Cove. Prompt students to include multiple senses when describing their experiences.
  5. Students share some of the diary entries with the class.
  6. Students work in pairs to play the online First Fleet educational game The Voyage to Van Diemen’s Land.

Note: This activity could be used as an assessment opportunity.

Reflection

Students discuss with their learning partner the most frightening thing that they think the convicts would have experienced on the journey or when they arrived in Australia.

Activity 11 – Colonisation and The Rabbits

Learning intention

Students will have an understanding of the impact of colonisation on the Indigenous peoples of Australia and on the environment.

Success criteria

Students write an accurate recount of The Rabbits in their books and are able to empathise with the numbats and/or the rabbits and recognise changes to the environment because of colonisation.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-8B: Identifies and compares different kinds of texts when reading and viewing and shows an understanding of purpose, audience and subject matter.
  • EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.
  • EN2-11D: Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own.
  • HT2-4: Describes and explains effects of British colonisation in Australia.
  • GE2-2: Describes the ways people, places and environments interact.

Resources

  • The Rabbits by John Marsden and Shaun Tan
  • Sticky notes
  • A large sheet of paper/whiteboard to write ‘I wonder …’ ideas
  • For further information for teachers (some mature content) see:

Approximate time

90 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Review what students learnt about the First Fleet in the previous activity. What do they think would have happened over the next couple of decades? What impact would the arrival of the convicts have had on Aboriginal peoples? To guide the discussion (for teachers) see:
  2. Introduce the book The Rabbits by John Marsden and Shaun Tan. Read the book to the class or show a reading of the book on YouTube. Do not stop for comments on the first read-through but pause on each page to take in the images.
  3. After the first reading, discuss what students thought the book was about. Brainstorm ideas on the board. Explain that the book is about the colonisation of Australia. The rabbits are the British arriving in 1788. The numbats are the Indigenous peoples already living in Australia.
  4. Discuss what sort of a text this is (picture book). Ask the following questions: Who do they think the intended audience is? Is it for little children, older children or adults? Are picture books ever written for adults? How can you tell who the audience might be? What would the purpose of this book be?
  5. Explain that you are going to read the book again. This time, you will stop on each double-page to discuss what is happening. Students each have a pile of sticky notes. They write down any questions that they have about that page or that idea, to put on an ‘I wonder …’ board about the book.
  6. Have a look at the front cover of the book. Discuss the images.
  7. Read the book again but pause on each double-page to analyse what is happening. Each double-page shows a stage of colonisation. Spend some time on this reading, looking at not just the relationship between the numbats and the rabbits, but also at what is happening to the environment as changes are made. Students write down things that they are confused about or curious about for the ‘I wonder …’ board.
  8. At the end of the second reading, discuss any new ideas to add to the brainstorm. What is happening in this book? What happened with colonisation?
  9. In their books, students write a response to The Rabbits. Under the title, The Rabbits, students summarise what happened in the story and how it made them feel. Students also describe the audience and the purpose of the text. Students can use the class brainstorm to help with their responses.
  10. Students add their sticky notes to the ‘I wonder …’ board. Share some of the questions with the class and discuss possible answers.

Reflection

Explain that you will be coming back to this story again throughout this unit and that students can add more questions to the ‘I wonder …’ board.

Activity 12 – Not terra nullius

Learning intention

Students learn about Indigenous resistance fighters and the role that they played in resisting colonisation. Students develop an understanding of the term ‘terra nullius’ and the impact that it had on colonisation and Australian history from that point onwards.

Success criteria

Students write accurate summaries of the struggles of Jandamarra and of Windradyne. Students can explain what ‘terra nullius’ means and its impact on Australian history.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-2A: Plans, composes and reviews a range of texts that are more demanding in terms of topic, audience and language.
  • EN2-4A: Uses an increasing range of skills, strategies and knowledge to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on increasingly challenging topics in different media and technologies.
  • HT2-4: Describes and explains effects of British colonisation in Australia.
  • HT2-5: Applies skills of historical inquiry and communication.

Resources

Approximate time

90 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Reflect on the activity about Captain Cook and his use of the term ‘terra nullius’. Ask students to recall what that term means. Discuss again: Was Australia an empty land? Did it belong to no one? Reflect also on Activity 4.1. How does this affect what Captain Cook saw? Why would he have said that the land was ‘terra nullius’?
  2. Students write a paragraph in their book explaining why they do or do not think that Australia was ‘terra nullius’ at the time of colonisation.
  3. Ask students how they think the Aboriginal people reacted when the British colonised the country. What happened in The Rabbits when the numbats realised that the rabbits were going to stay? Draw attention to the pages where there were fights.
  4. Students discuss the following question with a learning partner: What would you have done if you were part of an Aboriginal nation at the time of European colonisation? How would you have tried to survive?
  5. Introduce the idea that there were many fights between Aboriginal peoples and the colonists. These fights lasted for decades and are now referred to as the Frontier Wars. There were also well-known Aboriginal resistance fighters, people who were considered war heroes for their nation and land. Watch the two videos: 8 war heroes you didn’t learn about in school and What were the Frontier Wars?
  6. Read the picture book Jandamarra by Mark Greenwood and Terry Denton to the class and/or watch the short documentary Jandamarra.
  7. Students write a summary of Jandamarra’s story.
  8. Watch the documentary Windradyne and students write a summary of his story.

Note: This activity could be used as an assessment opportunity.

Reflection

Ask the class why they think that some of us have not heard a lot about this part of Australian history.

Activity 13 – Visual literacy

Learning intention

Students will be able to identify a range of visual techniques that the illustrator has used to influence meaning.

Success criteria

Students annotate pages from The Rabbits, highlighting visual techniques used to influence meaning.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-4A: Uses an increasing range of skills, strategies and knowledge to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on increasingly challenging topics in different media and technologies.
  • EN2-8B: Identifies and compares different kinds of texts when reading and viewing and shows an understanding of purpose, audience and subject matter.
  • EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.
  • VAS2.3: Acknowledges that artists make artworks for different reasons and that various interpretations are possible.
  • VAS2.4: Identifies connections between subject matter in artworks and what they refer to, and appreciates the use of particular techniques.
  • HT2-4: Describes and explains effects of British colonisation in Australia.

Resources

Approximate time

60 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Reflect on the reading of The Rabbits as a class. Look at one or two more of the ‘I wonder …’ notes and discuss as a class. Explain that you are going to look at the story again in this activity, but this time you are going to be paying particularly close attention to the pictures.
  2. Ask the students to explain the job of the illustrator and discuss the following questions in pairs: Are illustrators as important as the author? Why or why not? Is an illustrator an artist? Share some answers as a class.
  3. Watch the short interview Shaun Tan – Australia Post Australian Legend for 2019 so that students can understand who he is. Discuss other books that he has illustrated or written.
  4. Explain that illustrators use symbols or imagery to draw our attention to certain parts of the image. In The Rabbits, Shaun Tan has used scale, making parts of the picture seem bigger or smaller than other objects, to get an effect. As you read the story to the students again, pay attention to the size of the numbats and/or the rabbits in contrast to the environment. As the book starts, the numbats are quite small, the land dominates the image. This is reflective of the Indigenous peoples’ impact on the environment: minimal. As the rabbits begin to appear, they become bigger as more of them arrive and start to dominate the landscape. Discuss this use of scale with the students as you read through the book.
  5. Split the students into pairs or groups and give them a double page for each group to analyse visual features that help with the story. Look for any symbolism. Ask: How does the page make you feel? Some of the things to look for include: the use of monochrome associated with the rabbits (as the beauty of the environment fades), skull and crossbones in the Union Jack, maths and science symbols with the rabbits to symbolise ‘logic’, the numbats and the environment becoming further back in each image’s layering. The double-page should be stuck onto a larger sheet of A3 paper so that students can annotate the page with their observations.
  6. Circulate around the groups to ensure that they understand the task and give hints.
  7. Each group comes back together and goes through the book one double page at a time, explaining the visual techniques that they noticed on their pages.
  8. Discuss as a class, how effective Shaun Tan’s illustrations were. Discuss: How would the story have been different without the text, or without the images?

Reflection

Show the students a collection of other books illustrated by Shaun Tan that can be available in the class library throughout this unit, so that they can analyse other examples of his artwork. Display the annotated pages around the room.

Activity 14 – Native and introduced species

Learning intention

Students can identify the difference between native and introduced species and describe the ways in which introduced species are damaging native environments.

Success criteria

Students create a fact card about a native species and an introduced species with 10 relevant facts.

Syllabus outcomes

  • ST2-4LW-S: Compares features and characteristics of living and non-living things.
  • GE2-1: Examines features and characteristics of places and environments.
  • GE2-2: Describes the ways people, places and environments interact.
  • GE2-3: Examples differing perceptions about the management of places and environments.

Resources

Approximate time

120 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Display the double page of the sheep and cows from The Rabbits from the previous activity. Let students look at the image and then read the text: ‘They brought new food and they brought other animals. We liked some of the food and we liked some of the animals. But some of the food made us sick and some of the animals scared us’.
  2. Discuss as a class, what is happening in this part of the book. What animals did the colonists bring to Australia? Brainstorm.
  3. Students write these terms in their books: ‘Introduced species’ and ‘Native species’. Find the definition in the dictionary and students add this to their books. As a class, make a list of some animals that have been introduced into Australia and some that are native to Australia. Talk about plants that have been introduced and plants that are native and add those to the lists.
  4. Point out the main characters in the book: the rabbits and the numbats. Are they introduced or native? Why were those animals chosen for this story? Why are rabbits such a problem in Australia? How is the damage that they cause similar to the damage that the colonists have caused?
  5. Students take three minutes to brainstorm as many introduced species to Australia as they can think of and then write these down in their books. For example, carp, prickly pear, rabbits, foxes and cane toads. Students choose one of these introduced species. Allow students 30 minutes to find 10 facts about their species and create a fact card to display in the room.
  6. Watch The threat of invasive species about introduced species and why they become a problem in their new habitat. Discuss some of the reasons why species were introduced to new places. How do those actions conflict with those people who are trying to protect the environment?
  7. The native animal in The Rabbits is a numbat. Students take three minutes to brainstorm all the Australian native animals that they can think of and write these down in their books. Students are given 30 minutes to find 10 facts about one of those native animals to create another fact card. They should focus on how the Australian environment supports those native animals. Display these around the room.

Note: This activity could be used as an assessment opportunity.

Reflection

Students talk to a learning partner about the two animals that they researched, sharing at least one fact about each.

Activity 15 – Point of view

Learning intention

Students will produce a short dramatic scene which demonstrates the different points of view about an issue.

Success criteria

Each student participates in the scene and convincingly portrays the characters in The Rabbits.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-1A: Communicates in a range of informal and formal contexts by adopting a range of roles in group, classroom, school and community contexts.
  • EN2-2A: Plans, composes and reviews a range of texts that are more demanding in terms of topic, audience and language.
  • EN2-10C: Thinks imaginatively, creatively and interpretively about information, ideas and texts when responding to and composing texts.
  • EN2-11D: Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own.
  • DRAS2.1: Takes on and sustains roles in a variety of drama forms to express meaning in a wide range of imagined situations.
  • DRAS2.3: Sequences the action of the drama to create meaning for an audience.
  • HT2-4: Describes and explains effects of British colonisation in Australia.

Approximate time

60 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Discuss the following questions about The Rabbits with the students: From whose perspective is the story told? How can we tell? Explain that there are always two sides to a story.
  2. Divide students into groups of five. In each group, two students will be numbats, two students will be rabbits and one student will be an interviewer.
  3. Each group creates a talk show scene. The interviewer is going to ask the rabbits some questions about what happened when they came to Australia, and they will also ask the numbats questions about their experience. Allow students time to create their questions and answers and determine how they might portray the characters. They must have at least one question for each of the rabbits and numbats.
  4. Each group performs their ‘interview’ for the rest of the class. Discuss the way that they portrayed the characters and the answers, tones of voice and body language of the numbats and rabbits. Discuss how we can use drama to portray meaning.

Note: This activity could be used as an assessment opportunity.

Reflection

Reiterate that there are always two sides to a story and that we do best as a society when we listen to each other and our concerns.

Activity 16 – Dawn chorus

Learning intention

Students will understand some of the key features of an opera and will be able to discuss the features of operatic musical pieces.

Success criteria

Students will be able to give their opinions about two operatic musical pieces and will be able to define four key terms regarding opera.

Syllabus outcomes

  • MUS2.1: Sings, plays and moves to a range of music, demonstrating a basic knowledge of musical concepts.
  • MUS2.2: Improvises musical phrases, organises sounds and explains reasons for choices.
  • MUS2.4: Identifies the use of musical concepts and musical symbols in a range of repertoire.

Resources

Approximate time

50 minutes

Activity plan

  1. As students walk into the classroom, play Dawn Chorus from The Rabbits by Kate Miller-Heidke (this is the overture to The Rabbits opera). On the board, display the image from the inside and back covers of The Rabbits. Let students sit and listen in silence to the music.
  2. Students discuss with a learning partner what they heard, considering what the song sounded like (it is supposed to sound like a chorus of birds at the billabong). Discuss some answers as a class. The sounds were all made by the main singer in the opera: Kate Miller-Heidke.
  3. Discuss what it had to do with the picture on the board. The picture depicts a billabong at sunrise, with birds all waking up and calling to each other. Ask students to write a description of what they see in the picture. Students also write down the sorts of sounds that they might hear at a billabong as the sun rises.
  4. Allow students five minutes to work out some ways to make some of the sounds that they think they would hear at the billabong. They might wish to make it with their voice or body, or with small items at their desk. Discuss the idea of the sun rising. How is that going to affect the soundscape?
  5. Play the overture again and this time let students join in with one of the sounds that they have created, focusing on how the sound might change as the sun rises.
  6. Explain that this song is the overture to an opera that is based on the book The Rabbits. Ask if anybody has ever been to an opera. Discuss the main features of an opera (elaborate costumes, often sung in another language, very big voices, little talking, mostly singing).
  7. Students write the following words in their books, with room for a short definition:
    • Overture
    • Libretto
    • Recitative
    • Aria
  8. Watch What is the overture of an opera? Students write a sentence explaining what an overture is in their books.
  9. There are some other key features of an opera. Watch Libretto, Recitative and Aria. Students fill in the remaining definitions. Explain that in the opera The Rabbits, the libretto was written by Lally Katz, but the music was composed by Kate Miller-Heidke, a famous Australian singer and songwriter. Kate was Australia’s contestant this year in Eurovision. Kate also stars in the opera as the bird who looks over the conflict between the numbats and rabbits. At the end of the opera, she sings a song called ‘Where’ which is all about the need for reconciliation.
  10. Watch Where? from The Rabbits by Kate Miller-Heidke. During the video, draw students’ attention to the rehearsals for the opera and appreciation for the music and production itself.

Reflection

Discuss students’ feelings about the song. Ask: Did they like the song? How did it make them feel?

Activity 17 – Who will save us?

Learning intention

Students understand what reconciliation is and how we are all responsible for making sure that it happens.

Success criteria

Students create a visual representation of the importance of reconciliation, and everybody’s part in it.

Syllabus outcomes

  • PD2-3: Explains how empathy, inclusion and respect can positively influence relationships.
  • PD2-10: Demonstrates a range of interpersonal skills that build and enhance relationships and promote inclusion in various situations.
  • VAS2.1: Represents the qualities of experiences and things that are interesting or beautiful by choosing among aspects of subject matter.

Resources

Approximate time

90 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Ask students to find some free space in the room. They are not allowed to talk during this activity. Invite students to stand next to someone in the room with the same coloured hair. Similarly, ask students to stand with somebody with the same type of shoes. Lastly, ask students to stand with somebody whose name starts with the same letter. Comment on the fact that lots of the students have things in common.
  2. When the students are sitting down, ask them to list three things that they have in common with someone in the room.
  3. Next, students list three things about themselves that are unique.
  4. Discuss the types of things that make us different, for example, our looks, personality, values, religion, race, language, experiences, interests and so on.
  5. Discuss the things that generally unite us as Australians (for example, having a fair go, love of sports and the outdoors or other appropriate examples).
  6. Ask the question: What would unite the rabbits and the numbats in The Rabbits, so that they could live together? Look at the last page of the book. The text says, ‘Who will save us?’.
  7. Students work in pairs to discuss what is happening on that page and consider the following questions: Who is asking, who will save us? How does the question relate to Australia’s history and current situation? Who can save the numbats and the rabbits?
  8. Write the word ‘reconciliation’ on the board. Discuss what the word means as a class. What do the students know about reconciliation?
  9. Watch Reconciliation in Australia - Our History, Our Story, Our Future. Discuss together.
  10. Each student is given a blank sheet of paper. Students each write a sentence explaining who they think can save the relationship between the numbats, rabbits (those who came after colonisation) and the environment of Australia itself. Students draw an image that symbolises this reconciliation. Encourage students to be as creative (and neat) as possible, because these worksheets will be compiled into a class book!

Note: This activity could be used as an assessment opportunity.

Reflection

Students share their sentence and image with the rest of the class. Students’ pages are compiled into a class book called ‘Who will save us?’ to be displayed in the class library.

Activity 18 – Using music to tell stories

Learning intention

Students recognise that music can be used to communicate and heal after tragic events. Students learn about the Stolen Generations.

Success criteria

Students can explain what the Stolen Generations are.

Syllabus outcomes

  • EN2-11D: Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own.
  • HT2-2: Describes and explains how significant individuals, groups and events contributed to changes in the local community over time.

Resources

Optional

Approximate time

60 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Remind students of the previous activities, and how opera is used to tell stories. In the video that the class watched about reconciliation in the previous activity, it talked about having to tell stories even if they are hard to hear.
  2. Ask the students to discuss with a learning partner the stories that have been hard to hear about during this unit (for example, Frontier Wars, land taken and The Rabbits).
  3. Ask the class: Why might people use music to tell difficult stories? Brainstorm as a class. For example, it communicates a message, lasts a long time, makes you feel emotions and so on.
  4. Find the page in The Rabbits which reads, ‘And stole our children’. Look at the images on the page, for example, the seal on the paper showing it was approved by the government.
  5. Ask if students have heard of the Stolen Generations. Give a brief explanation of what happened, being conscious of the age of the students. Discuss the fact that this is another example of a true, but difficult, story which needs to be told if non-Indigenous Australians can work towards reconciliation alongside Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
  6. Play the song Took the Children Away written by Archie Roach and performed at Schools Spectacular 2016. Discuss what the song is about. Give students the lyrics to look through if needed (see Took the Children Away by Archie Roach – lyrics). Discuss how the song made them feel.
Optional
  1. Explain that every year, Schools Spectacular takes the opportunity to celebrate a story that needs to be told from Australia’s Indigenous history. One of the most famous stories ever told through song is Treaty, about the need for a treaty between the First Australians and non-Indigenous Australians. Show Treaty written by Yothu Yindi and performed at Schools Spectacular 2016.
  2. Show The Children Came Back by Briggs and Gurrumul, a sequel to Archie Roach’s Took the Children Away which expresses the resilience and strength of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in light of the Stolen Generations. This song was written to help deal with this hard situation and bad memories and look to the future as well.
  3. If time allows in a follow-up activity, ask students to choose one of the notable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander individuals featured in the lyrics of The Children Came Back (see The Children Came Back by Briggs and Gurrumul – lyrics) to research and report back to the class (for example, Patty Mills, Gavin Wanganeen, Cathy Freeman, Adam Goodes, Anthony Mundine, Gurrumul, Archie Roach, Jimmy Little, William Cooper, or another individual of choice). Display posters around the room.

Note: These optional activities could be used as assessment opportunities.

Reflection

Let students debrief about what they heard about the Stolen Generations during this activity. Reassure them that we share tragic stories about the past so that we can learn from them and understand others and ourselves better.

Ask students to think about a song that they like to listen to which helps them to deal with tricky situations or bad memories. If they are willing, students can share with the class and discuss.

Activity 19 – Symbolism and ceremony

Learning intention

Students will understand the importance of special commemorations, events and symbols in progress towards reconciliation.

Success criteria

Students will be able to name and explain at least two major commemorations, events or symbols recognising Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

Syllabus outcomes

  • HT2-1: Identifies celebrations and commemorations of significance in Australia and in the world.
  • EN2-4A: Uses an increasing range of skills, strategies and knowledge to fluently read, view and comprehend a range of texts on increasingly challenging topics in different media and technologies.
  • EN2-11D: Responds to and composes a range of texts that express viewpoints of the world similar to and different from their own.

Resources

Approximate time

60 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Remind students that one way that we move towards reconciliation is through sharing stories through song. Another way that we move towards reconciliation is through recognising important symbols and events. What events do the students know about that help with reconciliation?
  2. Discuss NAIDOC Week and National Reconciliation Week. What are these about?
  3. Write the word ‘Sorry’ on the board. What do students know about Sorry Day? Brainstorm.
  4. Watch the 10th Anniversary Since the Apology to the Stolen Generations.
  5. Hand out Attachment 19.1. Work through the questions as a class.
  6. Explain that another way that we continue to move forward is through recognising symbols and traditions. Put the images of the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander flags on the board (see Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander flags). Discuss what the students know about them.
  7. Hand out Attachment 19.2. Students colour and label the flags with appropriate colours and captions explaining the colours.
  8. Ask students whether they have ever heard anybody give a Welcome to, or Acknowledgement of, Country. Ask: Why do people do it? Why is it important? Discuss as a class. Explain the difference between a Welcome to, and Acknowledgement of, Country. You can only do a Welcome to Country if you are an Elder or have permission from the Elders. Anybody can do an Acknowledgment of Country. Acknowledgement of Country can usually be quite simple and is usually given at a school assembly, whereas a Welcome to Country is often more elaborate and conducted at major events.
  9. Watch Why a Welcome to Country is never boring. This is an excerpt from You Can’t Ask That – S01E08 – Indigenous. Discuss why a Welcome to Country and Acknowledgement of Country are so important.
  10. Show Welcome to Country. Discuss afterwards why doing things like this can help move further towards reconciliation.

Reflection

As a class look at your own country and its significance.

Activity 20 – Spectacular languages

Learning intention

Students will hear and appreciate First Nations languages in mainstream music. The class will learn how to sing a song in Yorta Yorta language.

Success criteria

Students will learn how to sing ‘Ngara Burra Ferra’ and will be able to discuss the use of Indigenous language in modern music.

Syllabus outcomes

  • MUS2.1: Sings, plays and moves to a range of music, demonstrating a basic knowledge of musical concepts.
  • DAS2.1: Performs dances from a range of contexts, demonstrating movement skills, expressive qualities and an understanding of the elements of dance.
  • DAS2.2: Explores, selects and combines movement using the elements of dance to communicate ideas, feelings or moods.
  • PD2-11: Combines movement skills and concepts to effectively create and perform movement sequences.

Resources

Approximate time

60 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Ask students whether they have heard anybody talking in a local Indigenous language. Have they heard it on television? Have they heard it in songs?
  2. Explain that the students will listen to a song called Marryuna by Baker Boy, which is in an Arnhem Land language ‘Yolngu Matha’ (meaning Yolngu tongue). Marryuna (Mar/re/ooh/na) is a verb which means ‘let’s dance’ or to dance with pure joy and freedom. Ask the students how they can see the joy in dance and language in this music video.
  3. Watch Baker Boy (Danzal Baker) being interviewed about the use of Yolngu Matha language in the following video Baker Boy: The Fresh Prince of Arnhem Land. Ask students: What is the importance of Baker Boy’s relationship to language and dance that you saw or heard in the video?
  4. Watch Yanada by The Preatures which includes the language Darug, a language spoken by some Aboriginal people near Sydney in the Eora or Darug nations.
  5. Ask students about their impressions of the song. Did they notice any images in the film clip that reflected the culture of the Darug people? How did the use of traditional language affect the song?
  6. Ask students to brainstorm any other famous Aboriginal singers that they know. Focus on Jessica Mauboy. She is one of Australia’s most successful singers and actresses. In her film, The Sapphires, there is a song sung in the traditional language of the Yorta Yorta people called Ngarra Burra Ferra. Hand out Ngarra Burra Ferra – lyrics with English translation. Play Ngarra Burra Ferra from The Sapphires. Invite students to sing along – this is a lovely song to sing for a choir performance.
  7. Point out that Jessica Mauboy also performed twice at Eurovision. Discuss whether anybody has heard of Eurovision. Explain the concept. This year, the Australian entry was from an Aboriginal electronic music duo called Electric Fields. They also include Aboriginal languages in their music.
  8. Play the Eurovision song 2000 and Whatever by Electric Fields and let the students dance freely to the music. Observe how they move and whether they can move in time with the music. You could also ask some of the more confident dancers to give the class some dance moves!

Note: This activity could be used as an assessment opportunity.

Reflection

Discuss what you think it means for Aboriginal peoples to be hearing their languages in popular songs and on television. Will it help in the journey to reconciliation?

Activity 21 – Schools Spectacular – Here we come!

Learning intention

Students will understand what Schools Spectacular is and know what to watch for in the Dreaming segments.

Resources

Approximate time

15 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Ask if any students have attended a previous School Spectacular. Those who have attended can tell the class what it is all about.
  2. Watch the Schools Spectacular 2019 promo video. Discuss with students what they think.
  3. Explain that there will be a segment in the show that reflects all that they have been learning about in this unit. They will hear some of the music that they have listened to during these activities and they are going to see people helping each other out and working together as well.
  4. Explain that you want them to pay particular attention to the way in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures are represented in the show and the way that First Nations’ languages are used.

Reflection

Students tell a partner what they are most looking forward to seeing at Schools Spectacular.

Activity 22 – Schools Spectacular – STARS!

Learning intention

Students will respond to what they saw at Schools Spectacular and how people helped each other out.

Resources

  • The televised edition of the Schools Spectacular 2019 performance if unable to attend in person.

Approximate time

15 minutes

Activity plan

  1. Discuss as a class, what their favourite things about Schools Spectacular 2019 were. If they attended the show, ask whether they would they go again? Would they try out to be a part of the show in 2020?
  2. Focus on the Dreamtime segment. What happened during this part of the show? Did the students recognise any of the songs from their unit of work?
  3. Discuss the ways that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures were represented throughout Schools Spectacular and when they noticed First Nations’ languages being used.
  4. Share the answers with the class.

Reflection

Ask students what their favourite part of this unit has been.

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