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Teaching and learning activity attachments

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Attachment 2.1 – Minecraft description

This game is very



There are lots of


possibilities every time you play.

You can play this came on lots of different



The best thing about this


game is collecting lots of different resources.

You can choose your


and you can play in either

creative or survival mode


You can create


worlds, but be careful of the




words – precise words


words – adjectives

Attachment 4.1 – Video game history – fact cards

Magnavox Odyssey

This was the very first home video game console. It was invented by Ralph H. Baer. It plugged into a television set and had two controllers connected with wires. It could display three square dots on the screen in black and white. There was no sound.


Pong was a two-dimensional game, much like table tennis. Each player controlled a paddle and knocked the ball back and forth to each other. This was the first game developed by Atari.


Whilst it was created in Japan, this became one of the most popular games across the world.It is still a popular game today and has made billions of dollars around the world.

Space Invaders

This game was created in Japan and was one of the earliest shooting games. It is one of the best-selling games of all time.


This game is still popular today, taking on many different formats. Essentially, it involves directing a frog through traffic and over obstacles without getting hit.

Nintendo Entertainment System

This was the best-selling game console of its time. Originally it was released in Japan, but eventually all over the world. The games were sold as cartridges, which plugged into the console. One of the games you could play on it was Super Mario Brothers.

Sony Playstation 2

This is one of the best-selling home video game systems of all time. It was the second generation of Playstation, but was produced for over 12 years, even after the Playstation 3 was developed.

Xbox 360

This home video game console was produced by Microsoft and was the second in its series. It included a program called Xbox Live, which allowed players to connect online to play games.

Game Boy

This was Nintendo’s first hand-held game console. It came on its own, or bundled with the hugely popular game Tetris. In the United States, the first one million consoles sold out in just a few weeks. It continued to be popular for many years. The Game Boy was originally created in Japan.

Mortal Kombat

This was a fantasy-horror themed fighting game. There have been many sequels over the years. It is one of the most successful fighting games in history with a reputation as very violent and was one of the reasons why video game classification was created.

Nintendo DS

The Nintendo DS is a dual screen, hand held video game console. It has a built-in microphone and supported wireless connections. It also allows multiple devices to connect together over WiFi in a close range. It has led to many new DS designs over the years.


This is a sandbox style game, created in Sweden. It allows players to build with a variety of different blocks in a 3D world. The game requires creativity from the player. It became one of the most popular video games of all time and has won many awards around the world.

Pokémon Go

This is an augmented reality, mobile game, developed as part of the Pokémon franchise. It uses a mobile GPS device to locate, capture, battle and train virtual creatures called Pokémon, which appear as though they are in the player’s actual location. The game is free to play.


This is an online video game. It is a cooperative shooter survival style of game. Players try to fight off zombies and defend objects by building forts. Up to 100 players fight it out to be the last player standing. The game has been incredibly popular, but has had mixed reviews from parents, concerned about violence.

Year answers

1972 – Magnavox Odyssey

1972 – Pong

1978 – Space Invaders

1980 – Pac-Man

1981 – Frogger

1983 – Nintendo Entertainment System

1989 – Game Boy

1992 – Mortal Kombat

2000 – Playstation 2

2004 – Nintendo DS

2005 – Xbox 360

2011 – Minecraft

2016 – Pokémon Go

2017 – Fortnite

Attachment 4.2 – Information report – structure

Writing your information report

You have been asked to write a one-page report, about the history of video games. Use the information on the fact cards, and what you learned in the BTN video, to provide your facts.

The purpose of an information report is to organise and describe information.

Your audience for this report is children in Years 5 or 6.

You will not be able to write about every single video game from history. You will need to talk more generally about the changes that have happened over the past 50 years.

Your information report should include:

  • a heading
  • an introduction – to state the topic
  • in-depth factual information
  • subheadings to show different ideas
  • technical terms related to video games
  • important dates
  • past tense, when writing about history
  • transition words between your paragraphs
  • a conclusion – reflecting on the topic.

Attachment 5.1 – Pinball – fact sheet

Pinball machines were a very popular pastime during the 1900s.

The aim of the game is to score as many points as possible, by directing a metal ball to hit different targets and travel to different parts of the pinball machine. The game ends when the ball falls through the gap on the bottom of the machine.

Originally, players needed to bump and tilt the machines to move the ball. In 1947, the flipper was invented, which changed the machines forever. The next big change came in the late 1970s, when the pinball machines became electric. Now there were buzzes and bells, along with electronic scoring.

The rise of the video games in the 1980s originally led to a decline in pinball machines, but they still exist side by side in arcades today.

In 1969, British rock band ‘The Who’, wrote and performed a rock opera called ‘Tommy’. It was all about a ‘deaf, dumb and blind kid’, who becomes an expert pinball player. The most famous song from the opera was called ‘Pinball Wizard’.

Why do you think pinball machines were so popular in the 1950s and 60s?

If pinball machines were to become popular again, what would they need in the future?

Attachment 5.2 – 'Pinball Wizard' – lyrics

Pinball Wizard

Performed by The Who

Lyrics by Pete Townshend

Ever since I was a young boy
I've played the silver ball
From Soho down to Brighton
I must have played them all
But I ain't seen nothing like him
In any amusement hall
That deaf, dumb and blind kid
Sure plays a mean pinball!

He stands like a statue
Becomes part of the machine
Feeling all the bumpers
Always playing clean
He plays by intuition
The digit counters fall
That deaf, dumb and blind kid
Sure plays a mean pinball!

He's a pinball wizard
There has to be a twist
A pinball wizard’s
got such a supple wrist

How do you think he does it? I don't know!
What makes him so good?

Ain't got no distractions
Can't hear no buzzers and bells
Don't see no lights a flashin'
Plays by sense of smell
Always gets the replay
Never seen him fall
That deaf, dumb and blind kid
Sure plays a mean pinball

I thought I was
The Bally table king
But I just handed
My pinball crown to him

Even on my favourite table
He can beat my best
His disciples lead him in
And he just does the rest
He's got crazy flipper fingers
Never seen him fall
That deaf, dumb and blind kind
Sure plays a mean pinball!

Specific words

This famous song about a pinball star contains lots of specific words that mention special features about pinball machines.

There are at least nine specific references to pinball machines in the lyrics.

Find them and list them below:

Attachment 6.1 – The science behind pinball machines

Pinball machines are a great example of science in action. There are many examples of the use of forces and gravity in the workings of the machines.

Here are some points to be aware of:


  • Isaac Newton established three Laws of Motion. One of those was that any object in motion, will stay in motion in a straight line, unless acted on by a force.
  • A force is a push or pull on an object, which changes the direction of speed or motion.
  • The flipper in the pinball machine changes the marble’s speed and direction of motion.
  • The force of gravity accelerates the ball down the incline of the pinball machine.
  • When the ball collides with the targets or obstacles in the machine, it changes the ball’s direction of motion.


  • To make the game more fun and difficult, the pinball machine is on an angle.
  • We give the ball energy by putting a force behind it when we hit it with the plunger at the start of the game, which makes it travel to the top of the board.
  • When the ball is at the top of the board it has more potential energy, because it is higher above the surface of the earth. This potential energy from gravity turns into kinetic energy as the ball rolls down the board.

Attachment 6.2 – Build your pinball machine

In your groups, you are going to design and build a pinball machine. There are a number of steps that you need to follow:

  1. Design your pinball machine on paper.
  2. Design and build your launcher. You could use elastic bands, cardboard or paddle pop sticks (or something else of your choosing).
  3. Include a tunnel or path for the start and a curve at the top of your ramp, so that the ball moves to the obstacles.
  4. Ensure that your machine is built on an incline.
  5. Build the obstacles and tunnels at the top of your board first.
  6. Test your design often and adjust as you need.
  7. Ensure that your pinball machine is aesthetically pleasing.
  8. Plan a presentation to give to the class, explaining your design, how you built your machine, what forces are in place, why you chose the materials that you did and how to play your game. Make sure that everybody gets to participate in the presentation.
  9. Deliver your presentation.

Things you must do

  • Create a design on paper for your pinball machine, with labels.
  • Make sure that your pinball machine is on an incline.
  • Choose appropriate materials.
  • Create a start launcher.
  • Include at least five obstacles on your pinball machine.
  • Make your pinball attractive to play – lots of colour and images.
  • Work as a team, making sure that everybody gets to share ideas and contribute to the making of the machine.
  • Present your design drawing and pinball machine to the class, talking about the following things:

    • your design drawing
    • how you built your machine
    • what forces are working in your machine
    • why you chose the materials that you did
    • how to play your game.

Attachment 6.3 – Pinball machine – rubric

4 points
3 points
2 points
1 point

0 points
All team members contribute to design and build process.
Most team members contribute to the design and build process.
Team members work together, with some conflict.
Some coordination between team members
Little coordination between team members
An attractive design drawing with informative labels
A pinball machine with colour and images
A pinball machine with colour
A pinball machine with limited thought given to design
No effort made towards colour or images
An attractive design drawing with informative labels
A design drawing with informative labels
A design drawing with some labels
A design drawing
No design drawing
An effective launcher that is easy to use
An effective launcher
A basic launcher is included
A launcher is included but difficult to use
No launcher
Five obstacles on the pinball machine
Four obstacles on the pinball machine
Three obstacles on the pinball machine
One or two obstacles on the pinball machine
No obstacles on the pinball machine

All team members participate.

Team addresses materials used, design, use of forces.

Presentation is engaging.

All team members participate.

Team addresses most aspects of the design process.

Most team members participate.

Team addresses some aspects of the design process.

Some team members participate.

Team addresses few aspects of the design process.

No presentation.

Attachment 8.1 – Tetris – fact sheet


Tetris is a video game that involves strategy and mathematical reasoning. Different sized shapes drop down into the screen, and the player has to move and rotate them so that they tessellate with the shapes already on the screen.  If you have too many gaps, then you start running into trouble in the game.

Tetris was created by a Russian computer programmer named Alexey Pajitnov in 1984. Alexey loved maths puzzles and Tetris reflects his favourite board game – Pentominoes.

There are seven different shapes that are in the game and they are all made up of four squares, in different combinations. The name Tetris comes from the Greek word ‘tetra’, which means ‘four’ and ‘tennis’, which was Alexey’s favourite game to play.

The game is incredibly popular and available on many different platforms. It is considered quite addictive and is regularly voted as one of the most influential video games of all time.

Why do you think Tetris is such a popular game?

How could Tetris be made into an even better game?

Attachment 8.2 – Tessellating tetrominoes

There are five shapes used in Tetris. Today, you are going to use these shapes, to make some tessellated patterns.

To create a tessellation, you need to translate, rotate or reflect shapes, so that they fit together without any gaps. The shape itself cannot change size or shape.

You will use the grid paper provided to draw different tessellations, using the five tetrominoes used in Tetris, as shown below.

You can use colours to identify the different shapes that you have manipulated on the page.

Attachment 9.1 – Tetris multiplication

Attachment 10.1 – Pokémon cards explained

What is a Pokémon card?

Pokémon is a Japanese franchise and has been around for at least 15 years. The word Pokémon is short for its original title, ‘pocket monsters’. At various times, Pokémon has been a video game, a trading card game, a television show and has also been used for many toys and other merchandise.

The Pokémon are actually creatures that live in the wild or with their ‘owner’ or ‘trainer’. The goal is to collect all of the Pokémon, which number almost 700.

There are many ways to use the cards. You could just collect and trade the cards, trying to ‘catch them all’ and have more valuable cards. You can also play a game using the cards. The point of collecting the cards is to have 60 cards that are powerful enough to help you win battles against other ‘trainers’.

Each pack of cards is different and each card is different. Some decks of cards have themes, others are more random. Many rare cards are very valuable. There are three different categories of cards: character cards, energy cards and trainer cards.

Character cards

Each Pokémon has a type and there are 18 of these types. Some of them include Fire, Water, Psychic, Normal and Dragon.  Each card will show how ‘evolved’ the character is. That means it is in its basic, stage one or stage two form. This is in the upper left-hand corner. Some of the best cards are the Legendary Pokémon. They don’t evolve and are already very powerful and rare.

Energy Cards

You need these cards to power your Pokémon throughout the game. These are common cards. You can get Special Energy cards that give different kinds of boosts.

Trainer Cards

These are used to get you items, supporters and stadiums for use during battles. There are usually special rules for their use and these are on the bottom.

You can tell if a card is rare or common, based on shapes that are on the card. In the bottom right-hand corner, there will be a circle for common cards, a diamond for uncommon cards and a star for rare cards.

New cards are released every time a new season of the television show comes out. These new seasons are often referred to as a new ‘generation’.

There is a virtual tutorial on the Pokémon website, to explain the game and lots of resources online to show you how to play.

Attachment 10.2 – Charmander description

Charmander #004

The flame that burns at the tip of its tail is an indication of its emotions. The flame wavers when Charmander is enjoying itself. If the Pokémon becomes enraged, the flame burns fiercely.

Height: 2 feet (60 centimetres)

Weight: 18.7 pounds (8.5 kilograms)

Gender: 87.5% male, 12.5% female

Category: Lizard

Abilities: Blaze

Attachment 10.3 – Character card – template

Character name:
Drawing of character:
Character name:

Description of character:

  • What does it look like?
  • Where does it live (habitat)?
  • What are its strengths and weaknesses?
  • What does it eat?
  • What other special characteristics does your character have?

Attachment 12.1 – Is video game music a legitimate genre?

With the rise of video game music, the question is asked: Is this a new genre and should it be taken seriously?

In a 2015 article in the Sydney Morning Herald, Tommy Tallarico (a video game composer) said that, ‘If Beethoven were alive today, he’d be a video game composer. He was always cutting edge, he was always ahead of the curve. His whole thing in music was to control the emotions of the person listening to it.’

Tommy Tallarico takes video game music very seriously. He wants people to understand the link between classical music and video game music. Tallarico has been doing this since 2002, when he started touring the world with his live performance ‘Video Games Live’. In these shows, he teams video game footage with live performances from orchestras, bringing to life some of the most classic video game music ever written. His shows have been touring the world ever since and have meant that lots of younger people have been attending symphonies.

In 2004, a composer named Nobuo Uematsu joined the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra for a performance of his most famous work. The show sold out in just three days. There was actually almost a riot at the box office when fans could not buy any more tickets.

You might wonder what the music was? Uematsu had composed the soundtrack for the popular video game ‘Final Fantasy’!

The orchestras that have been involved in playing this new music have been pretty happy about it too. They are playing to brand new audiences and having fun at the same time.

Tommy Tallarico isn’t the only person putting on these sorts of orchestral performances. There have been many successful versions across the world, including the award-winning ‘Games Concerts’ series of shows.

Radio programs and podcasts are now being produced, focused on video game music and they have been very popular. There are now awards given for video game music and some soundtracks are now regularly played on classical music stations.

Whilst there are still plenty of classical music enthusiasts turning their noses up at video game music, it is certainly making waves in the music world.

Attachment 13.1 – What is tempo?

Tempo is the speed of a song or piece of music. The word tempo is Italian for ‘rate of speed’.  Some songs will change tempo part way through.

The tempo influences how a piece of music sounds and feels.

Musicians and composers often use Italian names to describe different tempos. These names say how fast or slow to play a song. The tempo is determined by how many beats there are per minute (BPM).

There are 19 different tempos. They are listed below in order from slowest to fastest. The most common tempos have also been identified.

very, very slow
19 BPM and under
slow and solemn
20-40 BPM
40-50 BPM
45-50 BPM – Common
quite broadly
50-55 BPM
slow and stately
55-65 BPM – Common
quite slow
65-69 BPM
Andante moderato
a bit slower than andante
69-72 BPM
at a walking pace
73-77 BPM – Common
quite faster than andante
78-83 BPM
Marcia moderato
in the style of a march
83-85 BPM
86-97 BPM – Common
moderately fast
98-109 BPM
fast, quickly and bright
109-132 BPM – Common
lively and fast
132-140 BPM – Common
very fast and lively
140-150 BPM
very fast
150-167 BPM
extremely fast
168-177 BPM
even faster than presto
178 BPM and over

Attachment 13.2 – Video game music – analysis

Listen to the following video game soundtracks and make some notes about what you hear.

Pac-Man theme music

What sounds can you hear?

What sort of atmosphere or mood does this music create?

Does the music build excitement or is it a calming background soundtrack?

What do you think the tempo is?

What sort of game do you think this music would be good for?

The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim – Journey’s End

What sounds can you hear?

What sort of atmosphere or mood does this music create?

Does the music build excitement or is it a calming background soundtrack?

What do you think the tempo is?

What sort of game do you think this music would be good for?

Super Mario Bros. theme music

What sounds can you hear?

What sort of atmosphere or mood does this music create?

Does the music build excitement or is it a calming background soundtrack?

What do you think the tempo is?

What sort of game do you think this music would be good for?

Kreisler – Violin Concerto

What sounds can you hear?

What sort of atmosphere or mood does this music create?

Does the music build excitement or is it a calming background soundtrack?

What do you think the tempo is?

What sort of game do you think this music would be good for?

Attachment 14.1 – Video game classification – fact sheet

The video game classifications are meant to be used to make sure that children aren’t exposed to ideas and images that are inappropriate for their age.  

Classifications are usually based on themes, violence, language, drug use and nudity.

It is important to remember that the G, PG and M ratings are actually just recommendations, but MA15+ and R18+ are legally restricted categories of video games. It is actually against the law for kids under 15 to play MA15+ or R18+ games unless in the company of an adult.

Attachment 14.2 – What do you think?

In your small groups, write answers to the following questions:

Are video game classifications important?

Do you pay any attention to the ratings on video games?

Did you know that MA15+ and R18+ are actually legal classifications? What does that mean for you?

Should games with violent content even be made?

Attachment 14.3 – Classification discussion – proforma

The main difference between a discussion text and a persuasive text, is that in a discussion, you consider both sides of the argument and make a recommendation at the end.

Today, you are going to write a discussion text about the following topic:

Video game classification is a waste of time.

You will need to consider this question from the point of view of different groups of people – young children, teenagers, parents and teachers.

You will need to follow the format below to complete this activity. Each box is a separate paragraph. You should be aiming for 1 to 2 pages of writing. Check the rubric on Attachment 14.4 to make sure that you are covering all aspects of this task.


State what the issue is. Explain that different groups have different views. Introduce some of the groups who you will consider in this discussion (parents, teachers, teenagers, young children).

Argument for

Which group would agree with this topic? What do they think and why?

Argument for

Which other groups would agree with this topic? What do they think and why?

Argument against

Which group would disagree with this topic? What do they think and why?

Argument against

Which other groups would disagree with this topic? What do they think and why?


Summarise the arguments that you have written about above. What is your recommendation about the topic and why?

Attachment 14.4 – Classification discussion – rubric

4 points
3 points
2 points
1 point

0 points
States the issue and gives context to the groups being considered
States the issue and the groups being considered
States the issue and attempts to identify groups being considered
Only states the issue
No introduction
Argument 1
Uses persuasive language to thoroughly explain one group’s perspective
Effectively explains one group’s perspective
Explains one group’s perspective
Attempts to explain one group’s perspective
No argument made
Argument 2
Uses persuasive language to thoroughly explain one group’s perspective
Effectively explains one group’s perspective
Explains one group’s perspective
Attempts to explain one group’s perspective
No argument made
Argument 3
Uses persuasive language to thoroughly explain one group’s perspective
Effectively explains one group’s perspective
Explains one group’s perspective
Attempts to explain one group’s perspective
No argument made
Argument 4
Uses persuasive language to thoroughly explain one group’s perspective
Effectively explains one group’s perspective
Explains one group’s perspective
Attempts to explain one group’s perspective
No argument made

Summarises arguments and makes a persuasive recommendation

Summarises arguments and makes a recommendation

Summarises all arguments – or makes a recommendation

Summarises some arguments

No conclusion

Attachment 15.1 – Games for change

With your partner, choose one of the following games to investigate online and then report back to the class about it.

  • Against All Odds – the game that lets you experience what it’s like to be a refugee.
  • Auti-Sim – step into the shoes of a child with autism.
  • Catchment Detox – manage a river catchment and create a sustainable and thriving economy.
  • Stop Disasters! – an online disaster simulation game, teaching you how to build safer villages and cities against disasters.
  • 3rd World Farmer – illustrates the plight of poor farmers in impoverished countries.
  • Spent – simulates financial challenges that may result in poverty and homelessness.

Attachment 17.1 – Virtual reality gaming – fact sheet

Virtual reality (VR) is the new great wave in video game design. Whilst it is not new, VR is becoming more affordable and making its way into homes around the world.

Virtual reality means experiencing things through our computers, that aren’t actually real. It is a believable, interactive 3D computer-created world that you can explore so that you feel as though you are really there, both mentally and physically.

Virtual reality is providing opportunities for learning about everything from exploring the International Space Station, through to touring the Louvre in France.

Virtual reality games don’t just show you things, they put you right in the action. It allows us to see things from many different perspectives.

One interesting new development in VR games, involves multi-player platforms. In these games, each player has specific skills or talents, which the others don’t share. This means that you actually have to work together with the people you are playing the game with, in order to succeed.

Virtual reality games are trying to block out as much of the real world as they can, whilst you are immersed in the pretend world inside the game.

You can buy a wide variety of virtual reality headsets and accessories. Some of them are as cheap as $20, but very good sets go well into the hundreds of dollars. It all depends how much you want to spend on the experience.

One industry that is very keen on virtual reality is the medical profession. Doctors and nurses are using virtual reality games to practise for operations, interact with virtual patients and test out possible cures. Whatever happens next in the video game world, virtual reality is sure to be a big part of it!

Attachment 17.2 – Virtual reality gaming – comprehension questions


Which industry is particularly keen on the use of virtual reality?


What is happening as virtual reality becomes more affordable?


How do virtual reality games block out the real world?


What is one thing that you would find annoying about playing video games in virtual reality?


What do you think will be the most exciting thing about virtual reality in the next few years?

Attachment 18.1 – Design your own game – instructions

Working in a small group, you are going to be game designers. Before anybody heads to a computer to start building a game, they have to have a design document. It includes all of the information that game programmers will need to make the game. In this task, you are going to be creating that design document. There are several things that you will need to think about and include. Some of them are:

  • What is the storyline of your game (preferably not based on an already existing game or movie)?
  • Who are the characters?
  • What levels and environments are in your game?
  • What is the aim of the game? What will the end point be?
  • Who is your audience? Is it a game for young children, teens or adults?
  • What type of game is it – first person shooter (FPS), adventure, puzzle, simulator?
  • What do you want your game to look like? What will it sound like? What kind of art style will you use?
  • What sort of challenges will the main character have?

You will be presenting your design document to the class. You will need to include:

  • drawings of the main settings or levels of your game
  • drawings of the main characters, with labels indicating key features
  • a page of information about your main character, including:
    • what they look like
    • what they do for a job
    • their name
    • who their friends and enemies are in the game
    • what their big dreams are – what they really want
    • what they are most afraid of
    • where they live
    • what their personality is like
    • what they wear
    • who is in their family and what they are like
  • a written outline of the story or action of the game
  • a title for your game
  • how to play your game.

Attachment 18.2 – Design your own game – rubric

4 points
3 points
2 points
1 point

0 points
Game Design
Design drawings show detail, skill and imagination
Design drawings show some imagination
Basic design drawings
One design drawing
No design drawings
Character Details
Extensive and descriptive character details
Descriptive character details
Some character details
Few character details
No character details
Interesting and logical plot, well explained
Interesting plot structure
Some thought given to plot
Very basic plot structure
No plot structure
Effective and cooperative teamwork evident
Cooperative teamwork evident
Effective teamwork evident
Some teamwork evident
Little teamwork evident
All design drawings are done with care and imagination
All design drawings include some colour
Few drawn elements from game
Little attention paid to aesthetics
No attention paid to aesthetics

Interesting and informative presentation. Clear description of the game

Interesting presentation of basic game structure

Basic presentation with some information

Little or confusing information in presentation

No presentation

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